North Carolina hurricane victims take a lesson from Iowa Flood Center


44684096511_8eb7fbacc6_c.jpg
Hurricane Florence as seen from space (via flickr). 

Julia Poska| November 15, 2019

A North Carolina mayor hopes to make his city more resilient against flooding following hurricanes using a method he learned from Iowa experts.

At the end of August, the Iowa Flood Center hosted a “flood resilience learning exchange” for 20 scientists, conservationists, farmers and officials from North Carolina communities impacted by devastating flooding from recent hurricanes. The two-day event featured talks from Iowan experts, a tour of Cedar Rapids’ flood infrastructure and a visit to a farm implementing such strategies.

News source kinston.com reported this week that Mayor Dontario Hardy of Kinston, North Carolina had been advocating for increased funding for flood resiliency projects since attending the event almost two months ago.

In just the past few years, Kinston–located along the Neuse River– faced widespread flooding after Hurricanes Matthew (2016) and Florence (2018). Though the Iowa Watershed Approach was not developed with hurricanes in mind, the basic concept–implementing conservation practices on land that will reduce the speed at which precipitation enters and floods our waterways– can apply to all types of flooding.

 

 

DNR list of impaired water bodies grows in 2018


Tyler Chalfant | November 14th, 2019

The Iowa Department of Natural Resources found that the number of polluted lakes, rivers, and streams in the state continued to rise in 2018. The DNR has compiled a list of lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands that fail to meet water quality standards every other year since 1998. This failure can result from pollutants including, high amounts of bacteria, harmful algae, low oxygen, or high levels of mercury in fish.

Since 1998, the number of impairments on the list has grown every two years. However, officials caution against using these numbers to interpret long-term trends, as methodology changes over time, and each year’s report includes data for the previous five years as well. The most recent survey found 1,110 impairments on 767 freshwater segments, compared to 1,096 impairments on 750 segments in 2016. 

Not every freshwater body is monitored, but of those that were, a majority of lakes and reservoirs, as well as rivers and streams, were found to be impaired. Bacteria was found to be the most prevalent cause of impairment in rivers and streams, while algal growth was the most common in lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands Overgrowth of toxic blue-green algae, which can result from nutrient runoff, was especially prevalent this summer, and Lake Macbride had its first-ever swim advisory in July.

ISU research complicates cover crops


14114034729_009f46f192_b.jpg
Cover crops hold onto soil and carbon during the off-season (via Creative Commons).

Julia Poska| November 13, 2019

Though cover cropping has proven advantageous for soil and water conservation in Iowa, the practice’s benefits to atmospheric quality may be negligible, new research from Iowa State University found.

When farm fields are left bare during the winter and spring, wind and water transport soil and nutrients off the land and into streams and rivers, degrading both the field and water quality. Exposed soil typically releases carbon into the atmosphere at increased rates compared to planted areas, contributing significantly to climate change.

Cover cropping involves planting alternative crops like rye or clover to cover and nourish the land throughout the off-season. The conservation practice holds soil in place, pulls atmospheric carbon into plant material and adds carbon back into soil upon decomposition. Sequestering carbon in plants and soil is key to combatting climate change.

That carbon may not remain in the soil for long, however. The new study, published in Global Change Biology Bioenergy,  found that the added soil carbon stimulates microbes in the soil that emit carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere as they digest the organic matter.

The research — conducted by ISU assistant professor of ecology, evolution and organismal biology Steven Hall and grad student Chenglong Ye —  highlights the need for a variety of solutions for the planet’s numerous natural resource problems. While cover crops are a proven protectors against water pollution, we will need to implement other strategies to make farming carbon neutral, too.

Keystone XL resumes service following major spill


Tyler Chalfant | November 12th, 2019

The controversial Keystone XL pipeline resumed services over the weekend less than two weeks after an oil spill near Edinburgh, North Dakota. Approximately 383,000 gallons of oil spilled into a wetland. This is the pipeline’s second large oil spill two years, after another major leak affected South Dakota in 2017.

A further expansion of the TransCanada Energy pipeline was blocked by a federal judge last year after being approved by the Trump administration. The leak doesn’t appear to pose an immediate threat to public health, according to the North Dakota Department of Environmental Quality, but opponents of the expansion claim that these spills provide further evidence that the pipeline is not safe. 

The pipeline, which carries oil from Alberta to refineries in Illinois and Texas, first opened in 2010, meaning the sections in which these spills occurred are still fairly new. The 2017 spill was found to be likely rooted in a crack that had formed during the pipeline’s construction. Causes of this spill are still under investigation.

EPA proposes rollback of coal ash regulations


Photo of contaminated water from Waterkeeper Alliance Inc., flickr

Tyler Chalfant |November 7th, 2019

The Trump administration proposed on Monday a rollback of EPA regulations on coal-fired power plants that could prolong the risk of drinking water contamination. The Obama-era rules focused on cleaning up unlined ponds used by companies to store coal ash residue. 

Coal ash contains toxic heavy metals such as arsenic, lead and mercury. These regulations, created following a 2008 coal ash spill in Tennessee, required all unlined coal ash ponds to begin closing last year, but the new proposal extends that deadline three years. Coal ash contamination has been found in at least 22 states, including Iowa.

The EPA also relaxed the limit on the amount of coal plant wastewater that can be discharged, citing improvements in technology which makes removing contaminants easier, as well as the $175 million in compliance costs they claim this change would save the industry. 

This move follows a pattern of efforts by this White House to support the coal industry. Researchers have found that lowering prices for competing energy sources, such as wind and natural gas, are more to blame for the decline of the coal industry in recent years than environmental regulations. 

Still, the Environmental Protection Agency is expected to make key decisions regarding coal industry standards in the year before the presidential election, according to political experts. These could affect regulation on mercury and air quality standards.

U.S. formally withdrawals from Paris Agreement, but 26 Iowan parties are still in


8402095161_1306fccb24_c.jpg
The Paris Agreement aims to limit harmful emissions (via flickr)

Julia Poska | November 6, 2019

The United States has officially notified the United Nations of its withdrawal from the Paris Climate Agreement.

President Trump announced his intent to withdraw on the campaign trail and again in January 2017. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo tweeted Monday that the administration had begun the formal, one-year withdrawal process that day. U.N. rules declared Nov. 4 the first day formal withdrawal was possible, according to the BBC. 

If a new president is elected in 2020, he or she may choose to reenter the agreement, which intends to minimize global temperature increase by reducing greenhouse gas emissions in participation nations.

In the meantime, over 3,000 U.S. cities, counties, states, businesses, tribes and institutions have declared intent to cut emissions in line with the agreement via the “We Are Still In”  declaration. In Iowa, 26 parties have signed on including…

  • The cities of Des Moines, Iowa City, Dubuque and Fairfield
  • Johnson and Linn Counties
  • Coe College, Grinnell College, Kirkwood Community College, Luther College, Iowa State University and the University of Iowa

 

 

Iowa officials investigate fish kill following manure spill in Wolf Creek


Tyler Chalfant | November 5th, 2019

A fish kill was found in Wolf Creek in Tama County last week, after a manure applicator for Mayo Farm Inc. reported that about 2,600 gallons of manure leaked had from a drag hose. The applicator attempted to stop the flow, but estimates that up to 500 gallons reached the creek. Environmental officials from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources are investigating the spill.

Fresh manure contains ammonia, which kills fish at high quantities. Manure is used as a fertilizer because of the high levels of nutrients ‒ notably nitrogen and phosphorus ‒ that it contains. However, when too much of these nutrients enter an ecosystem, it can throw the system out of balance. Algae tends to bloom in nitrogen-rich environments, and certain types known as cyanobacteria can be toxic for aquatic life. 

Even when it isn’t toxic, overgrowth of algae can also kill fish through oxygen depletion, known as hypoxia. Nitrogen runoff from Iowa agriculture contributes not only to local hypoxia, but also to the largest ever “dead zone,” at the basin of the Mississippi River in the Gulf of Mexico. The voluntary practices recommended in the state’s 2014 Nutrient Reduction Strategy include reducing the use of fertilizers in order to reduce hypoxia.