About 14 percent of Iowa experienced abnormal dryness during the early part of June and since then that percentage has nearly doubled.
Data from the Drought Mitigation Center show that Iowa’s southeast corner is the driest region in the state. This region includes much of the area south of Interstate 80 and east of Interstate 35.
Drought intensity is measured on a five-point scale from “abnormally dry” to “moderate drought” to “severe drought” to “extreme drought” and finally “exceptional drought.” The Hawkeye State has not experienced severe or extreme drought since 2012.
Dr. Deborah Bathke, a climatologist with the Lincoln, Nebraska-based Drought Mitigation Center, warmed that if the current weather conditions continue it may lead to a “flash drought.”
“If we continue to see these high temperatures and lack of precipitation, I can see us quickly evolving into what we like to call a ‘flash drought,’ which is when we have this rapid onset of high temperatures combined with a lack of precipitation that really starts to desiccate our soils and stunt our crop growth,” Dr. Bathke told Radio Iowa.
Soil conditions have also varied across Iowa with most of the northern third of the state experiencing “adequate to surplus” levels of moisture in topsoil compared to southeast Iowa where over 60 percent of topsoil moisture levels were rated “short to very short,” according to the most recent Iowa Crop Progress & Condition report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Despite the hot and dry conditions in southeast Iowa, the USDA report found that statewide just 4 percent of Iowa’s corn land is classified as “poor” or “very poor” while 3 percent of soybean land falls into those same categories.
A cover crop and soil health field day will be held in Solon, Iowa on Thursday June 16th to honor late farmer Tom Wall. A grower for 33 years, Wall practiced no-till agriculture on his corn and soy bean crops. In efforts to improve soil health, Walls also planted turnip and cereal rye cover crops beginning in 2013. Cover crops provide many benefits to the land, including soil erosion protection, reduced nutrient leaching, carbon sequestration, weed suppression, and integrated pest management.
The event will be held at the Timber Frame Lodge off of Lake Macbride Trail. It is hosted by the Iowa Learning Farms, in collaboration with the Rapid Creek Watershed Project and the Iowa Soybean Association. The event includes a complimentary dinner and is free and open to the public.
The field day will feature a discussion about “incorporating small grains and perennial forage into row crop rotations” led by Iowa State Extension and Outreach Agronomist Matt Liebman. Jason Steele, Area Resource Soil Scientist for Iowa Natural Resource Conservation Service, will conduct a demonstration on soil health. Additionally, attendees will have the chance to see the effects of rainfall on various agricultural and urban land use scenarios through a Conservation Station Simulator.
When considering that Iowa has lost over half of its topsoil over the last 100 years, events like these seem to carry a new significance. Beyond the devastating environmental consequences, there are also adverse economic effects of top soil erosion. In Iowa, eroded soil means rented land decreases in value by $6.74 per acre on average.
For more information about this cover crop and soil field day and other conservation education events, visit The Iowa Learning Farm.
PARIS – Experts from around the world weighed in on the importance of carbon sequestration and other sustainable agricultural practices during a conference Thursday morning.
The United Nations General Assembly declared 2015 “the International Year of Soil” which was the focus of the “Agroeology and Soil Solutions” conference in the Green Zone at COP 21. The event featured a four-person panel with each participant having expertise in a different aspect of agriculture or soil science. Before the panel gave their individual presentations, the approximately 50 attendees were shown a four-minute documentary produced by the Center for Food Safety and narrated by food journalist Michael Pollan.
“In one handful of soil there are more organisms than there are humans on earth and we are only beginning to understand the vast network of beings right beneath our feet,” Pollan said in the film’s opening scene.
The short film discussed the impact of over-farming and other unsustainable practices that remove carbon from the soil and release it into the atmosphere, contributing to rising temperatures and other effects of climate change.
Hans Herren – President and CEO of the Washington D.C.-based Millennium Institute – was the first panelist to present. Herren holds a PhD in Biological Control from the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland and part of his presentation focused on the science behind carbon sequestration as he emphasized the need for dietary changes to improve soil health.
“If you don’t change the diet farmers can’t change the way they produce. People’s behavior in terms of diet is essential,” he said.
Kristine Nichols – Chief Scientist for the Pennsylvania-based Rodale Institute – was next to take the podium as she focused on research her center had done on a farm in Ohio. Nichols – who holds a PhD in Soil Science from the University of Maryland – said the carbon problem can actually be part of the solution.
“Really what we’ve got is a carbon problem and the problem is that we don’t have carbon in our soil.”
Nichols also addressed the negative effects of synthetic fertilizer and ways in which agriculture has become less efficient over the past half century.
“It takes more synthetic nitrogen fertilizer now to grow a ton of grain than it used to take in 1960,” she said. “Our systems are becoming far more inefficient because we’re not utilizing the biology.”
Nichols concluded her presentation with an interactive demonstration of the ability of different soils to retain water, showing that healthy soil can more easily retain moisture and filter excess liquid down to groundwater. Water retention not only helps soils to be more healthy but it also mitigates erosion and nutrient run off, both of which are concerns for farmers in Iowa.
The last of the panelists to speak was Precious Phiri, founder of the Zimbabwe-based EarthWisdom Consulting Co. Phiri focused on ways that grasslands, waterways, and livelihoods can be improved for African farmers and ranchers through better livestock management practices.
“We depend on livestock to get back our grasslands,” she said, adding “Overgrazing is an issue of time and not numbers.”
Phiri pointed out several examples in her homeland where proper grazing and agricultural techniques led to more permanent vegetation and waterways in the arid region.
The event concluded with a short question and answer session. During this time Nichols addressed the need for good research and the dissemination of information as well as strong policy that can lead to improved conditions.
“We needs to provide consistent and good information to people,” she said, adding “It is policies on the departmental level that would be beneficial.”
An Iowa City writer recently published an editorial in The New York Times outlining ways that Iowa is reducing and will continue to reduce carbon emissions.
Jeff Biggers – a writer-in-residence for the UI’s Office of Sustainability and founder of the Climate Narrative Project – points out efforts Iowa is currently taking to reduce its carbon footprint such as using wind power to generate roughly 30 percent of the state’s electricity needs as well as the WACO school district which soon hopes to generate 90 percent of its electricity from solar.
Biggers also discussed specific ways that an agriculturally-focused state such as Iowa can keep its carbon in the soil and out of the atmosphere. He points out that land misuse accounts for 30 percent of carbon emissions, a potential talking point for world leaders attending the COP 21 conference which begins later this month.
“Far too few climate change negotiators took notice of an important proposal called the Four Per Thousand Initiative, which France’s Ministry of Agriculture, Agrifood and Forestry introduced earlier this year. This proposal simply calls for a voluntary action plan to improve organic matter content and promote soil carbon sequestration in soil though a transition to agro-ecology, agro-forestry, conservation agriculture, and landscape management. According to France’s estimates, a “.4 percent annual growth rate for the soil carbon stock would make it possible to stop the present increase in atmospheric CO2.”
“We’re looking at soil carbon sequestration efforts through regenerative agriculture, through organic farming, through a whole host of activities that are happening now in the rural areas that really give me a lot of hope in terms of the climate change issue.”
Rick Cruse, a professor in the Agronomy Department at Iowa State University, has been involved with CGRER for the past six years. Much of Cruse’s research focuses on soil and agriculture, specifically erosion and tillage. While the University of Iowa and Iowa State University are rivals on the field, court, and mat, Cruse said he’s been happy to see the two entities come together for collaborations such as CGRER.
“I don’t know if it’s brought on by tight budgets but nonetheless the link between the strengths that the two institutions bring together has a synergistic effect and that synergy is really critical,” he said.
In addition to bridging the gap between the two public universities, Cruse also attempts to bridge the gap between academics and the general public through community education and outreach efforts. He works with the Soil and Water Conservation Club, a student organization at Iowa State, on a publication they call “Getting into Soil and Water.”
“This annual statement explains various water- and soil-related issues that are relevant to the people in Iowa,” he said.
Cruse said that while he serves an advisory role, students are responsible for much of the writing, editing, and designing of the publication. In addition to CGRER‘s research component, Cruse said the center has also been key in developing synergies between researchers and policy-makers.
“Often times we struggle linking what we do in science with the legislature, with people that make policy decisions. The link with State Senator Joe Bolkcom and other connections provides an avenue we wouldn’t otherwise have.”
This article is part of a series of stories profiling CGRER members in commemoration of the center’s 25th anniversary this October.
This week’s On the Radio segment looks at a new set of incentives from the U.S. Department of Agriculture that could help farmers combat global warming. Listen to the audio below, or continue reading for the transcript.
Transcript: USDA to give incentives for farmers
A new set of incentives from the U.S. Department of Agriculture may give farmers even more reasons to combat global warming.
This is the Iowa Environmental Focus.
In an effort to reduce emissions and increase carbon sequestration, the USDA has released new programs to persuade agricultural producers to generate renewable energy in their operations. The initiatives, carried out under the 2014 farm bill, are voluntary, but could lead to a 120 million metric ton reduction of greenhouse gases from the ag sector per year. Agriculture is one of the leading greenhouse gas emitting sectors in Iowa.
The programs will incentivize several GHG-lowering practices, like cover crops, lagoon covers (to manage methane emissions), tree planting and independent energy generation. These practices could coincide with Iowa’s existing nutrient reduction strategy.
For more information about incentive-based programs, visit IowaEnvironmentalFocus.org.
From the UI Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, I’m Jerry Schnoor.
Starting tonight, Iowans will have their say on the proposed relaxing of topsoil preservation rules for newly constructed sites.
In hearings over the last year, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources has considered comments from home developers and homebuilders who wish to amend a current rule regarding topsoil conservation. While the current rule requires companies to maintain or replace at least 4 inches of topsoil on new construction sites, the industry is asking to be able to choose for themselves how much soil – if any – is to be replaced on such lots. Homeowners and conservationists have come out in defense of the current rule, which preserves soil health and prevents the headaches of flooding and runoff from land lacking in topsoil, while saving homeowners the added expense of adding the soil themselves.
At one of the initial hearings on the rule, however, a contractor is reported to have asked, “Why should I care what happens downstream?” For some, the benefits of topsoil preservation seem far off, and not worth the added $3,500-$6,000 in replacement costs per lot the industry estimates. However, all Iowans would feel the effects of relaxed soil conservation rules. Here are a few reasons topsoil matters:
Healthy topsoil is Iowa’s first and best defense against excessive flooding. When topsoil is removed from a lot, the land can’t hold nearly as much moisture. As a result, water from storms and snow melts simply runs off, causing increased flash flood concerns. During warm seasons, standing water on stripped land can also attract mosquitos and disease-carrying organisms.
In addition to moisture, land with healthy topsoil holds fertilizer better than land without it. This means that when storms come, landowners are at less risk for nutrient runoff, preventing them from incurring the added cost of applying additional fertilizers. This is also good for our rivers and streams, which are already inundated with excessive nitrates and phosphorus from nutrient runoff.
Healthy topsoil is an absolute necessity for growing grass, trees and gardens. Without it, homeowners will often have to haul in their own topsoil, adding unexpected costs to their home purchase which could have been folded into their mortgage in the first place (and probably at a much lower rate).
Topsoil protects Iowa’s water quality and reduces costs for water utilities. The Des Moines Water Works, which is suing three Iowa counties over nutrient runoff disputes, spent over half a million dollars in nutrient replacement this winter.
The Iowa DNR will hear comments regarding the proposed rule change at public hearings starting Wednesday, March 18, at the Cedar Rapids City Services Center. The DNR will also conduct hearings on March 25 in Davenport and March 27 in Des Moines. Iowans can give written comments by mail to Joe Griffin, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 502 E. Ninth St., Des Moines, IA 50319-0034. They can also send comments by email to firstname.lastname@example.org .