The National Science Foundation granted a group of mostly Iowa-based interdisciplinary researchers $2.5 million to explore potential scenarios for making greater Des Moines more sustainable.
The Sustainable Cities Research Team –12 researchers from Iowa State University, University of Northern Iowa and University of Texas at Arlington– received the grant this week. The group’s engineers, environmental scientists, psychologists and others will holistically study food, energy and water systems within a six-county area to develop and analyze “scenarios” for improved sustainability.
An ISU press release said the approach would include analysis of potential for increased local and urban food production as well as building and transportation energy efficiency. The researchers will survey and collaborate with local residents and stakeholders, including farmers and community leaders.
The research effort could inform not only the future of the Des Moines area, but planning and policy in other Midwestern cities, too.
Research conducted by Iowa State University horticulturists show that new bioplastic materials could allow gardeners to tend their plants more sustainably and could potentially help plants self-fertilize and grow healthier roots.
“Bioplastics present a range of environmental advantages, such as improved biodegradability, that conventional petroleum-based plastics can’t claim”, said William Graves. Grave, associate dean of the ISU Graduate College and professor of horticulture, and a team of researchers recently concluded their five-year study on bioplastics in an attempt to find materials that show promise for horticultural uses, such as the plastic pots and flats that retailers use to sell immature plants.
Bioplastics come from renewable biological sources like plants and large-scale adoption in the marketplace could ease dependence on fossil fuels.
The study looked at many options for bioplastic made from sources such as polylactic acid and the more biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates. They also included byproducts that result from the production of corn, soybeans, and ethanol.
They found bioplastic containers have the potential to offer another major advantage that petroleum products can’t: the ability to self-fertilize plants.
Plastics made from bio-based materials can release nutrients as the plastic degrades. That could lessen the workload for gardeners, and encourage root growth that will improve the plant’s performance once transplanted into soil or into another container, he said.
The study was funded by a $1.94 million grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture and provided results from conducting market research on consumer preferences regarding bioplastics. The researchers found that consumers prefer bioplastic products that resembled petroleum plastics as closely as possible in appearance, color and texture.
Ulrike Passe, associate professor of architecture and director of ISU’s Center for Building Energy Research, is the lead faculty researcher. Passe said, “There’s so much unrelated data available — from census and economic information to policy studies and weather records — but it needs to be merged into a useable model.” Passe added that city planners and officials need to have “a data-based tool that helps them decide how to allocate resources for conservation measures like tree planting and storm water management.”
Passe’s team of 16 researchers from over a dozen disciplines is working closely with Scott Sanders, Des Moines city manager. Sanders said, “The creation of this this decision-making system will provide staff access to an amalgamation of big data, which they presently have no way to effectively evaluate, that is a critical component to the future of successful and resilient cities.” Sanders noted that citywide interest in sustainability is on the rise, he said, “The demand far outweighs the city’s ability to provide all of the required and desired improvements within its current budget constraints. The need for a data-driven process and policy to help assess and prioritize the city’s investments has never been higher.”
The project is focusing its efforts on communities in east Des Moines such as Capitol East, Capitol Park and MLK Jr. Park. Linda Shenk, associate professor of English at ISU, is also involved in the study. She said, “We focus on marginalized populations because they are the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change due to limited resources, yet the most difficult for cities to reach and engage in data collection.” For her part, Shenk has been discussing climate change and brainstorming local solutions with neighborhood groups and high school students. Meanwhile, other researchers in the neighborhoods are gathering data about how citizens interact with their city, communities, and homes using computational thermal-physical models.
Other ongoing projects include a tree inventory in the Capital East neighborhood and energy efficiency research through controlled experiments at ISU’s net-zero energy Interlock house located at Honey Creek Resort State Park. The study’s goal for this year is to compile data about human behavior related to energy use. Moving forward, Passe said, “Our objective is to create decision-making support systems that will help cities and their residents translate this research into actions — new policies, incentives for individual behaviors and community resilience.”
The University of Iowa and Iowa State University participated in the EPA’s 2012-2013 College and University Green Power Challenge.
This challenge compared the green power usage of the collegiate athletic conferences. The Big Ten Conference and the Big 12 Conference finished first and second. The University of Iowa contributed 9,842,480 kWh of Green Power, while Iowa State University contributed 17,964,3300 kWh.
Climate change could affect reproduction in some animals.
Specifically, some animals – especially reptiles – have temperature dependent sex determination. In other words, the temperature leading up to some animals’ birth will determine if the offspring is male or female. Cold weather usually leads to more males, and warm weather leads to more females.
The worry is that this could lead to the extinction of some species as the planet continues to warm.
Listen to the full story, including interviews with Iowa State University researchers, here.
Next Monday, Feb. 25, is the beginning of Iowa State University’s Symposium on Sustainability.
The event will feature keynote speakers Adam Hammes, Manager of Sustainability for Kum and Go; Daniel Krohn, Global Sustainability Lead for Becker Underwood, Inc./BASF; Michael Smith, Associate Vice-President Real Estate and Sustainability for Hy-Vee, Inc.; and Liv Watson, Director for International Business Development for WebFilings.
The symposium is free, but registration is required.
To register and find out more information, click here.