On The Radio – September brings record heat worldwide


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Temperatures in Kuwait reached 123 degrees Fahrenheit on September 3rd, 2017. (flickr/Lindsay Silveira)
Jenna Ladd | November 27, 2017

This week’s On The Radio segment discusses how September 2017 set high heat records all over the world. 

Transcript: September 2017 was the planet’s fourth warmest September since record-keeping began in 1880.

This is the Iowa Environmental Focus.

Warmer-than-usual temperatures were recorded across most of the world’s land and ocean surfaces during September this year, despite the absence of an El Niño effect. El Niño events typically bring warmer weather because they cause the ocean to release warm air into the atmosphere. September 2015 is the warmest on record, with September 2016 and 2014 trailing close behind.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s September global climate report noted record high temperatures in many of the world’s oceans and in parts of Africa and Asia. The hottest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere was 109 degrees Fahrenheit on September 27th in Birdsville, Australia. In the northern hemisphere, temperatures soared to 123 degrees Fahrenheit on September 3rd in Mitribah, Kuwait.

So far, 2017 is on track to become the second hottest year on NOAA’S 138-year record.

For more information and to read the September global climate report in full, visit iowa-environmental-focus-dot-org.

From the UI Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, I’m Betsy Stone.

World Series game one was the hottest on record


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Temperatures soared to 98 degrees Fahrenheit by the first pitch of Tuesday’s game. (accuweather)
Natalia Welzenbach-Marcu | October 26, 2017

The first game in the 2017 World Series, a match between the LA Dodgers and the Houston Astros, was held in California for the first time in 15 years—and brought with it a record-shattering 103 degrees. The previous World Series heat spike, 94 degrees, was recorded in 2001 in an Arizona game between the Arizona Diamondbacks and the New York Yankees. A heat warning for the area extended well into the game and finally lifted around 8pm—or about three hours after the game commenced.

The LA Dodgers, who won the game 3 to 1, might have owed something to the heat. High heat has been proven to have an effect on the distance a ball travels across the field. The University of Nevada-Reno’s Department of Math & Science put together a chart spanning analyzing the average number of home runs per game and the average distance of a batted ball, taking the temperatures of each game into account. After sifting through data from World Series games played between 2000-2011, they found that when the heat of a game spiked beyond 75 (the determined average temperature for an MLB game), home runs for any given team increased by an average of 2, while batted ball distance increased by roughly 2ft, suggesting that heat has a tangible effect on offensive play.

The heat spike spells bad news for other California residents, however, as the increased temperatures and accompanying 50 mph winds have made the ongoing wildfires in the Northern half of the state dangerously powerful. While the LA Dodgers beat the heat and made California proud, the state’s battle with wildfires will likely not ease up anytime soon.

Global temperatures continued to rise in September


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A climate anomalies map from NOAA details significant some climate events during September 2017. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association)
Jenna Ladd | October 20, 2017

Earth’s climate continued to warm during September 2017, setting some alarming records.

September 2017 was the planet’s fourth warmest September since record-keeping began in 1880. The three warmest Septembers were in 2015, 2016 and 2014. This year’s September was especially notable because no El Niño effect was present. El Niño events typically bring warmer weather because they cause the ocean to release warm air into the atmosphere.

Even in the absence of an El Niño effect, temperatures in January through February of this year have made 2017 the second hottest year on the 138-year record kept by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In the top spot? 2016, which was 1.02 degrees Celsius above the 20th century average.

Sweltering temperatures were experienced across the globe. The hottest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere was 109 degrees Fahrenheit on September 27th in Birdsville, Australia. In the northern hemisphere, temperatures soared to 123 degrees Fahrenheit on September 3rd in Mitribah, Kuwait.

Record high temperatures are not without consequences. September 2017 also had the second lowest Antarctic sea ice cover during that month on record. The Arctic sea fared slightly better, coming in at number seven for record low sea ice cover during September.

A concise summery of NOAA and NASA’s September climate report can be found here.

Alliant energy offers trees at significant discounts to costumers


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Maple trees make up one-third of all trees in Iowa, making them more susceptible to disease and pest problems. (Dee McIntyre/flickr)
Jenna Ladd | October 4, 2017

Alliant Energy’s Operation ReLeaf tree distribution program will continue this week and into October. During this time, the company provides landscape-quality trees to their customers at a significant discount. Thoughtful placement of trees can cut energy costs for homeowners by providing shade in the warmer months and wind blocks during colder months.

Customers can buys trees that typically retail for $65 to $125 for just $25 each. Residential tree distributions will be held in Buena Vista, Fayette, Lee, Linn, Lucas and Story counties this October.

The Iowa Department of Natural Resources provides several resources for homeowners looking to select the appropriate tree for their yards. In one of the DNR’s publications, “Rethinking Maple: Selecting Trees For Your Yard,” officials point out that maple trees make up more than one-third of all trees in Iowa, which increases their risk for disease and pest problems. The pamphlet encourages homeowners to consider other tree species based on desired qualities such like vibrant fall color, storm resistant, salt tolerant and others.

Trees will be distributed on a first-come, first-serve basis at the following locations on the following dates:

Buena Vista County – Storm Lake

Partner: City of Storm Lake

Location: Kings Point Park

Date: Oct. 4, 4:30 p.m. to 6 p.m.

Lee County – Montrose

Partner: Lee County Conservation

Location: Lee County Conservation Center

Date: Oct. 5, 5 p.m. to 6:30 p.m.

Tree planting and care workshop: 5:45 p.m.

Linn County – Marion

Partner:  Linn County Conservation Board

Location:  Squaw Creek Park

Date: Oct. 7, 7:30 a.m. to 9 a.m.

Tree planting and care workshop:  8:15 a.m.

Story County – Ames

Partner: Story County Conservation

Location: East Petersen Park

Date: Oct. 19, 4:30 p.m. to 6 p.m.

Tree planting and care workshop: 5:15 p.m.

Climate change to significantly alter urban climates


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Climate Central and the World Meteorological Organization’s list of top ten fastest warming cities. (Climate Central)
Jenna Ladd| August 28, 2017

Climate Central in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization have created an interactive tool detailing how average summer temperatures in cities around the globe are likely to change by 2100.

The effects of global warming are often compounded in cities by the urban heat island effect, which can make cities up to 14°F hotter than rural areas. On average, land temperatures are expected rise by 8.6°F by 2100, but some cities will warm much more. For example, the analysis found that if emissions are not curbed, Ottawa, Canada is projected to have a climate comparable to Belize City by 2100. In the same scenario, residents of Chicago can expect to have a climate more similar to Juarez, Mexico.

At present, more than 54 percent of the world’s population call cities home. Given that rising global temperatures will felt more acutely in urban areas, it is no surprise that many U.S. mayors have pledged their continued support of the Paris Climate Accord, despite President Trump’s decision to withdraw.

Check out the interactive tool here to see how climate change is projected to change the climate in your city.

Lyme disease more common due to climate change


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Deer ticks thrive in hot and humid forested areas. (flickr/Joslyn Gallant)
Jenna Ladd| August 17, 2017

As temperatures and humidity rise in the United States, conditions are becoming more favorable for disease-carrying deer ticks.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports that climate change has expanded the geographical range of ticks. Deer ticks specifically are most active when temperatures are above 45 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity is at least 85 percent. As temperatures and humidity rise in many parts of North America, so too are tick populations. The EPA reports that the incidence of Lyme disease in the U.S. has doubled since 1991.

The Northeastern U.S. has experienced the sharpest increase Lyme disease transmission. This part of the country is becoming more humid, making conditions better for ticks to emerge from the ground and latch onto hosts. New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont have seen the largest spike in Lyme disease incidence since 1991, followed closely by Delaware and Massachusetts. On average, the EPA reports, these states now see 50 to 100 more cases per 100,000 people than they did in 1991.

In the future, deer tick populations are expected to double in the U.S. and become up to five times more numerous in Canada.

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Incidence of Lyme disease per 100,000 people. (EPA)

Extreme weather reaches ‘uncharted territory’


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Hurricane Matthew is just one example of the climate change-related extreme weather events that have taken place in 2017. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/flickr)
Jenna Ladd | March 23, 2017

Last year was a record-breaking year for climate change and not in a good way. Global temperatures set record highs for the third consecutive year and sea ice coverage worldwide shrunk by 4,000,000 square kilometers, that’s about the size of the European Union.

These extraordinary climate conditions led to extreme weather events all around the world. Among them, Hurricane Matthew in the Caribbean, the first category four storm to reach land since in 1963 and severe droughts in southern and eastern Africa. A recent report from the United Nations World Meteorological Organization found that extreme weather has carried over into 2017.

So far this winter, severe storms in the Atlantic Ocean have caused Arctic “heat waves” so that while ice cover in the region should be refreezing, many days it was close to melting. North Africa and the Arabian peninsula have seen colder than usual winter temperatures while parts of Canada and the U.S. have been much warmer than is typical.

David Carlson is the World Climate Research program director. He said, “Even without a strong El Niño in 2017, we are seeing other remarkable changes across the planet that are challenging the limits of our understanding of the climate system.”

In the month of February alone, nearly 12,000 warm temperature records were broken in the U.S.

Carlson added, “We are now in truly uncharted territory.”