On The Radio- Climate change and crop production


13752499703_e202bff99e_o.jpg

This weeks segment looks at how increased temperature and precipitation will affect crop production in the Midwest. 

Transcript:

Increasing temperatures and precipitation will affect crop yields in the Midwest.

This is the Iowa Environmental Focus.

The Midwest, often referred to as the breadbasket of America, is a major producer of corn, soybeans, and wheat. Rising temperatures and greater precipitation threaten farmer’s livelihoods.  

According to the Fourth National Climate Assessment, Midwestern states are expected to warm up more than any other region in the U.S. Currently, the Iowa average annual 5-day maximum temperature during a heat wave is in the range of ninty to ninty-five degrees Fahrenheit. 

Now U.S. climate scientists are projecting that by mid-century, five-day heat wave temperatures in Iowa will increase by about seven degrees Fahrenheit for the average year and by thirteen degrees Fahrenheit once per decade compared to heat waves in the late twentieth century.  

Higher average temperatures increase the rate of evaporation from soil and plant leaves, leaving the land dry and arid and potentially damaging crop yields. Longer spells of high heat pave the way for droughts. The newly dryer land is then unable to properly soak up water from heavy rainfall, creating more flooding scenarios.

For more information, visit iowa-environmental-focus dot org.

From the UI Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, I’m Sara E. Mason.

DNR reports 3% increase in Iowa greenhouse gas emissions


2017 pie chart.png
This pie chart shows 2017 greenhouse emissions in Iowa by sector (from the 2017 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report). 

Julia Poska | December 28th, 2018

Greenhouse gas emissions in Iowa rose 3 percent from 2016 to 2017, according to a new report from the state Department of Natural Resources.  The report accounted for 131 million metric tons of emissions released throughout the state in various sectors including energy, agriculture and solid waste.

The largest sources of increase were waste and industrial processes. Emissions from waste rose 28.62 percent due to increased decomposition of older waste in landfills. Emissions from industrial processes rose 31.73 percent percent, largely due to increased production of ammonia, up over 180 percent from 2016. The only sector to see decrease was natural gas production and distribution, which decreased about 10 percent and accounts for only 1 percent of total emissions.

Agriculture contributes about 30 percent of the state’s greenhouse gas emissions,  mainly methane and nitrous oxide, which are respectively about 25 and 298 times more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide. These emissions largely come from animal waste and soil management.

Despite this increase, total emissions are down 6 percent from 2008.  The DNR projects that emissions will continue rising through at least 2020, and drop a bit more by 2030.

On The Radio- Ecosystem services


22481785132_74065a1f14_o.jpg
Flickr/ckocur

Kasey Dresser| December 24, 2018

This weeks segment looks at how the relationship between humans and ecosystems will change with the affects of climate change.

Transcript:

Climate change will alter the relationship between humans and ecosystems. 

This is the Iowa Environmental Focus. 

Ecosystem services are benefits that humans gain from nature. Some of these benefits will diminish in coming years, according to the Fourth National Climate Assessment released in November. 

Some ecosystem services provide resources like food, water and fuel. Iowa’s economy depends heavily on one such service—agriculture. The growing season is starting earlier and becoming wetter, which will impact crop yields.

Other services protect humans from natural dangers such as disease-carrying insects, like mosquitoes and ticks. As northern climates get warmer the ranges of such pests and the diseases they carry are expanding. 

Cultural services include natural provisions for recreation, tourism, aesthetics and spirituality. Climate change will impact sporting seasons and threaten cherished landscapes. 

Changes will vary among regions and ecosystems, making the future hard to predict. Some losses are inevitable, though, and may compromise human industry, livelihood and sustenance. 

For more information, visit iowa-environmental-focus-dot-org.

From the UI Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, I’m Sara E. Mason.

MidAmerican wind expansion approved by IUB, scorned by green energy groups


3821454158_5fc9bb060a_z
Wind power, generated by turbines like those pictured above, is on the rise in Iowa, but not everyone is happy with the circumstances under which it is growing (flickr). 

Julia Poska| December 21, 2018

MidAmerican Energy’s Wind XII project will bring the utility company’s “100 percent clean energy vision” to reality so why are groups like the Iowa Environmental Council and the Environmental Law & Policy center unhappy with it?

These groups and others opposed the project throughout court proceedings, which concluded with the Iowa Utilities Board granting approval for the projection Dec. 4. While expanding wind energy is certainly a positive in itself, environmentalists hoped the board would require MidAmerican to shut down coal plants and evaluate the cost effectiveness of coal power as a condition to the project’s approval.

“It is time for MidAmerican to make a transparent and long-term commitment to 100% clean energy that includes phasing out one of the 20 largest coal fleets in the country,” explained Environmental Law & Policy Center Senior Attorney Josh Mandelbaum in a press release.

Though MidAmerican has committed to providing “100 percent renewable” energy, in reality they have only promised to “generate renewable energy equal to 100 percent of its customers’ usage on an annual basis,” in their own words.  The Wind XII project would be the final step to completing that vision. The company is one of the nation’s top coal-burning utilities, however, and has no plans to phase out its coal production in Iowa, even as it expands wind power.

MidAmerican told the Des Moines Register in August that coal was necessary for “low wind” times, but Mandelbaum in the same article called the whole renewable energy declaration “a gimmick.” The company still derives about 30 percent of energy from coal.

More recently, the Register published an opinion piece by Elizabeth Katt Reinders, a senior campaign representative for the Sierra Club’s Beyond Coal Campaign. Reinders shamed MidAmerican for its continued reliance on coal, and urged it towards a truer clean energy vision for the sake of our air, energy bills and climate.

On The Radio- Adapting to the inevitability of climate change


2106456193_3d00f54f7d_o.jpg
Oil Capital in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (flickr/Wolfgang Schlegl)

Kasey Dresser| December 17, 2018

This weeks segment looks at methods to adapt to climate change laid out in the Fourth National Climate Assessment. 

Transcript:

Adaptation is crucial for dealing with climate change, but it is not always done well. 

This is the Iowa Environmental Focus. 

Even if greenhouse gas emissions stopped immediately, the Earth would still face decades of warming from gases already in the air. The Fourth National Climate Assessment discusses effective strategies for adapting to inevitable climate change. Here are three key things for communities to consider. 

ONE- Proactive planning works better than reacting to issues as they arise. Projections for an area’s future, which may differ greatly from present conditions, can help inform approaches.  

TWO- Dramatic issues like sea level rise and heat waves are certainly scary, but vulnerable communities cannot focus all their resources on adapting to one hazard.  It is important to consider a breadth of potential impacts and implement a range of strategies. 

THREE- Risk communication can keep residents informed, influence the decisions they make today,  and help them prepare for the future. It is important to communicate about what is anticipated every step of the way. 

For more information about climate change adaptation, visit iowa-environmental-focus-dot-org.

From the UI Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, I’m Sara E. Mason.

Food sharing app co-founded by Iowan woman wins UN Climate Action Award


tG6blHRg
Iowa-born Saasha Celestial-One, winner of a UN Climate Action award, courtesy of OLIO’s partner resources.

Julia Poska | December 14, 2018

The U.S. may have let its climate-concerned citizens down this week at the COP24 Climate Summit in Katowice, Poland, but one Iowan woman has achieved success as part of an international team of award winners.

On behalf of the U.K., U.S., and Sweden, the developers of the food sharing app OLIO won the UN Lighthouse Award for Climate Action “Momentum for Change” prize in the category “Women for Results.” Saasha Celestial-One, originally from Iowa, developed the app with England’s Tessa Clarke in 2015.

Celestial-One was raised by “Iowa hippies,” according to her bio on the app’s website, and grew up salvaging everything from broken furniture to grocery store garbage. “Giving things a second chance is in my DNA. I hate waste,” she told the magazine Stylist for a profile earlier this year.

OLIO takes that same anti-waste attitude and attempts to spark action from regular people. The app allows neighbors and businesses to share excess food with other users in 32 countries. According to their site, 635,761 users have shared 1,138,886 portions of food so far. This food is ultimately saved from the landfill, where it would decompose anaerobically and release the greenhouse gas methane into the atmosphere. The water, land and energy resources used to grow, make, and transport that food are saved from waste as well.

The “Momentum for Change” award went to 15 ‘”activities” in 14 countries on Tuesday at the COP24 summit. The award “showcases some of the most practical and replicable examples of what people are doing to address climate change,” according to a press release from the UN.

This week at COP24: U.S. climate carelessness more apparent than ever


7669702266_b53e8335b6_z.jpg
The U.S. promoted coal at the COP24 summit on Monday (flickr).

Julia Poska | December 13, 2018

Of the 58 largest greenhouse gas emitters globally, the United States ranks second to last for its efforts to combat climate change in a new report published Monday at the COP24 Climate Summit in Katowice, Poland.

The 2019 Climate Change Performance Index evaluates countries’ advancements in energy production, use and policy to put pressure on those falling behind. The only country with a worse score than the U.S. is Saudi Arabia.

According to the report, the U.S.’s greatest failures are at a national level, thanks to President Trump’s denial of man-made climate change and his intention to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement. U.S. policy still favors fossil fuels, though individual states and cities have made some progress in spite of that position.

The nation brought its pro-fossil fuel attitude along to the summit, and hosted an event called “US innovative technologies spur economic dynamism,”there Monday to promote supposedly “clean” uses of coal, oil and natural gas . Australia, ranked just four spots above the U.S. in the index, was the only nation to support the event, but the Australian climate change policy advisor disagreed and called the event a “slap in the face” to neighboring Pacific Islands that are desperately threatened by the rising sea level, according to the Guardian.

The top countries in the index, Sweden and Morocco, have made greater progress in reducing emissions, but are still not quite on target to keep warming under 1.5°C, as the International panel on Climate Change has deemed necessary to protect the planet’s inhabitants and resources. These nations rank “High”, so as of now the top three spots on the index, marked as “Very High,” remain empty.